Reloading Custom Loads for .40 S&W special

Loads for .40 S&W special: ( .400 dia. bullet) (Note: These are near maximum loads, you should use 10% less to start.) Due to different barrel lengths, type of bullet, seating depth, primer type and other factors, you may not get near the FPS charted. It is just a guide and the reason you should start under these charges and work up.

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The history of the Kalashnikov AK47

The Kalashnikov AK series of assault rifles has been the Soviet / Russian standard assault rifle since the early 1950's whose design is rooted in the German MP44 submachine gun of the Second World War. The rifle seems to have made a home among countless nations using it to this day and is a favorite among collectors even in the United States. It is reported that upwards of 35 million copies of the AK-47 have been produced world wide in one form or another and have been supplied to Soviet-supported states for decades.

The general appearance of the AK-47 is widely known with it's half-wood half-steel construction. The barrel runs under the gun system instead of over it and the curved magazine give away it's identity almost immediately. The fixed metal sight over the muzzle is another defining feature. The 7.62mm ammunition is a proven man-stopper and the 30 round ammunition cartridge is more than sufficient. The weapon has an effective range out to 300 meters, though the system suffers dramatically beyond it.

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The History of the M16 Assult Rifle

M16 History

The US Army long had a deeply entrenched and historical view which argued that carefully aimed, long-range rifle fire is superior to the high-volume but largely unaimed bursts of automatic weapons. Those who argued for aimed fire believed that good marksmanship and judicious control win battles and conserve ammunition.

Military historian S.L.A. Marshall found that only 4 out of 10 World War II veterans fired at the enemy. Retired Lieutenant Colonel Dave Grossman, in his book, On Killing: The Psychological Costs of Learning to Kill in War and Society, concluded that failing to fire at the enemy is a universal problem. He observes that humans have an deep aversion to harming others, and only tough, realistic training that conditions soldiers to kill relexively in combat can overcome this aversion, but even this is never completely effective. Even with such training, very few troops are mentally prepared to direct aimed fire at the enemy, preferring instead to spray bullets in the general direction of the enemy.

This is the basis of the argument that weapons with high volumes of fire would meet the wartime needs of the US military much better. At a time when the infantry of many armies is armed with sophisticated and fully automatic versions of assault rifles, US foot soldiers are equipped with the M-16, a one-pull, three-shot rifle.

The M-14 was the Army' s original choice to replace World War II-era M-1 and Browning Automatic rifles. The M14 was an unhappy compromise weapon, that satisfied virtually no one, least of all the men for whom it was intended. General dissatisfaction with the M14 and numerous studies led the Army to the development of a light weight weapon capable of firing a burst of small caliber bullets with a controlled dispersion pattern. Unfortunately, the M-14's follow-on initially fared little better.

The replacement for the M14 was originally designed by Eugene Stoner, of the ArmaLite Company, as the AR-15 around 1956. The AR-10 was conceived by Eugene Stoner as a 7.62mm Basic infantry rifle in 1955. At that time the Army was considering replacements for the M1 Garand. The AR-10 was stunningly different than any previous design. It was produced with aircraft grade aluminum receivers, and therefore weighed less than seven pounds. The stock and other furniture were plastic, while the T-44 and T-48 were of wood. The configuration of the rifle itself, with its integral carrying handle and charging handle distinctively mounted within it, sparked intense curiosity. In the end, the AR-10 wasn't able to catch up, and eventually lost out to the M-14 rifle in 1959.

Based on the AR-10, Army officials asked ArmaLite to develop a smaller version of the AR-10 in 1956. The ensuing rifle was called the AR-15. Army analysis of battlefield statistics from WWI, WWII and Korea, had shown that most kills from small arms occured at ranges of less than 300 yards. This suggested that the military should seriously consider lighter weight, higher capacity weapons. Seeking a novel cartridge suitable for a smaller caliber assault rifle, Eugene Stoner approached Winchester Corporation. The result was the small but powerful .223 Rifle Cartrdige -- high-velocity, light weight, low recoil, and capable of penetrating a helmet per US Army specifications.

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All About the 7mm Cartridge

Long recognized as a superb choice for hunters, the 7mm (.284) bore size is now attracting great interest among long-range match shooters as well. The 7mm occupies the "sweet spot" between 6.5mm and 30 caliber--with an optimal balance between bullet weight and BC. It's hard to beat 7mm ballistics with either a 6.5mm or a reasonably-sized 30, and the 7mm will give longer barrel life than a 6.5 mm with less recoil than a 30-caliber (of equal BC). To match the ballistics of a 7mm 180gr VLD with a 30-caliber bullet, you must move up dramatically in bullet weight--to a 210gr or larger bullet. To drive the heavier 30-caliber bullet at similar velocities, you'll need more powder. More powder and a much heavier bullet weight means more recoil (and attendant fatigue) for the 30-caliber shooter. The combination of great ballistics with manageable recoil has made the 7mm cartridge a favorite among long-range prone and benchrest shooters. The chamberings of choice are the .284 Winchester, 7mm Winchester Short Magnum (7mm WSM), and 7mm Remington Short Action Ultra-Magnum (7mm SAUM). For silhouette shooters and hunters, the 7mm-08 is a top choice (but not the only choice).


7mm family portrait: (left to right) 7mm-08 Rem, 7mm Mauser, .284 Win, .280 Rem, 7mm SAUM, 7.21 Lazzeroni Tomahawk, 7mm WSM, 7mm Rem Mag, 7mm Wby Mag, 7mm Dakota, 7mm STW, 7mm Ultra Mag and 7.21 Lazzeroni Firebird.

New Interest in the .284 Winchester For many years, the "original" .284 Winchester lived in the shadow of the smaller 6.5-284. That is all changing. Today there is great interest in the .284 Win.

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About the .223 Remington & 223 AI Cartridge

.223 Remington--Centerfire Favorite The .223 Remington is the most widely-used centerfire rifle cartridge in the developed world. In its 5.56x45 military form, it is the primary issue ammunition for the U.S. Military and NATO forces. It is a popular sporting cartridge, and probably the most commonly used centerfire varmint cartridge. In our Readers' Poll, the .223 Rem (both standard and improved) ranked first among preferred varmint rounds. The .223 Rem is efficient and versatile. It can sling 40-grainers past 3650 fps, and deliver 90gr VLDs accurately at 1000 yards. Its parent case, the .222 Remington, was once a mainstay of benchrest competition. Today, with custom match bullets, the .223 Remington can still deliver impressive accuracy, shooting well under quarter-MOA in a good rifle.

.223 Remington Cartridge History The .223 Rem traces its roots to the .222 Remington, a round popular with benchrest and varmint shooters in the 1950s. When the US military was looking for a new high-speed small-caliber round to replace the .308 Winchester (7.62x51), Remington started with the .222 Remington, and stretched it to increase powder capacity by about 20% in 1958 to make the .222 Remington Magnum. The cartridge was not accepted by the military, but it was introduced commercially. In 1964, the 5.56x45 mm, also based on a stretched .222 Rem case (and very similar to the .222 Rem Magnum), was adopted along with the new M-16 rifle. As with the .222 Rem Magnum, the new military case achieved enhanced velocity (over the .222 Rem) by increasing case capacity with a longer body section and shorter neck. This military modification of the .222 Rem was originally called the .222 Special but was later renamed the .223 Remington. In military metric nomenclature, the round is called the 5.56x45. For the full history of the 5.56x45 cartridge, read the 5.56x45 Timeline, by Daniel Watters.

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10 Commandments of Firearm Safety

10 Commandments of Firearm Safety

1st Commandment

Always keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction. This is the most important gun safety rule. A safe direction is one in which an accidental discharge will not cause injury to yourself or others. Never allow your gun to point at anything you don't intend to shoot. Be especially careful when you're loading or unloading. Treat every gun as if it were loaded. And make it a habit to know where your muzzle is pointed at all times, even when your firearm is unloaded.

No one will be injured by an accidental discharge if you keep your firearm pointed in a safe direction. It's as simple as that.

2nd Commandment

Firearms should be unloaded when not actually in use. Load your firearm only when you're in the field or on the target range and ready to fire. Never let a loaded gun out of your sight or out of your hands. Unload it as soon as you're finished shooting - before you bring it into your car, camp, or home. Remember, unloading your firearm means unloading it completely, so there is no ammunition in the chamber or in the magazine.

Firearms should be unloaded when not actually in use.Before handling a firearm or passing it to someone else, visually check the chamber, receiver and magazine to be certain they do not contain ammunition. Always keep the gun's action open when not in use. Never assume a gun is unloaded even if you were the last person to use it. Always check for yourself.

Let common sense rule when you carry a loaded gun. If you're in any situation that could risk accidental discharge - such as crossing a fence, wading through a stream, or climbing a tree - always unload your gun. Never pull or push a loaded firearm toward yourself or another person. And never carry a loaded gun in a scabbard, detached holster or gun case. Safe storage of firearms is just as critical as safe handling. Never store guns loaded and be sure to keep your firearms in a secure place where no one can get their hands on them without your knowledge.

Take special care if there are children around. Kids are fascinated by guns. It's a natural curiosity that can have tragic consequences when not properly supervised. Store your firearms in a locked gun safe or some other location that physically bars a child from gaining access. Ammunition should be stored and locked in a location separate from your firearms. Never leave an unsecured firearm or ammunition in a closet, dresser drawer or under the bed. Remember, it is your responsibility to make sure that children and others unfamiliar with firearms cannot get access to your firearms and ammunition.

3rd Commandment

Don't rely on your gun's safety. Treat every gun as if it can fire at any time, whether or not there's pressure on the trigger.

Your firearm has been carefully designed to maximize performance and safety. However, a gun's safety is a mechanical device and, like any mechanical device, it could fail.

Human error is a more likely reason for a gun safety to fail. By mistake, you may think the safety is on when it really isn't. Or the safety may have been disengaged without your knowledge. Or you could think your gun is unloaded when there's actually a cartridge or shell in it. A safety is not a substitute for common sense. It's merely a supplement to your proper handling of a firearm.

Don't touch the trigger on a firearm until you are ready to shoot. Keep your fingers away from the trigger when you're loading or unloading. And don't pull the trigger when the safety is engaged or positioned anywhere between safe and fire. Read your instruction manual to understand the exact location and operation of your firearm's safety. Even when the safety is on, maintain control of your loaded firearm and control the direction of the muzzle. In other words, don't rely on your safety to justify careless handling. If your firearm's internal mechanisms are broken or have been altered, your firearm may fire even when the safety is on. Remember, you and your safe gun handling practices are your gun's best safety.

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Basic Firearm safety

RULE 1 ALL GUNS ARE ALWAYS LOADED The only exception to this occurs when one has a weapon in his hands and he has personally unloaded it for checking. As soon as he puts it down, Rule 1 applies again.

RULE 2 NEVER LET THE MUZZLE COVER ANYTHING YOU ARE NOT PREPARED TO DESTROY You may not wish to destroy it, but you must be clear in your mind that you are quite ready to if you let that muzzle cover the target. To allow a firearm to point at another human being is a deadly threat, and should always be treated as such.

RULE 3 KEEP YOUR FINGER OFF THE TRIGGER TIL YOUR SIGHTS ARE ON THE TARGET This we call the Golden Rule because its violation is responsible for about 80 percent of the firearms disasters we read about.

RULE 4 BE SURE OF YOUR TARGET You never shoot at anything until you have positively identified it. You never fire at a shadow, or a sound, or a suspected presence. You shoot only when you know absolutely what you are shooting at and what is beyond it.

Crosman 2250B

On these hot, summer days in the desert, shooting outdoors is problematic for me. This summer, I decided to set up an indoor air pistol range in my home and keep my shooting skills sharp until cooler weather returns. Much to my chagrin, I found that my 60 year-old arms were no longer capable of cocking my HW70A air pistol. CO2 seemed like a good alternative, so I scoured the Web looking for the right pistol.

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The 5.7x28 FN

This diminutive Belgian import delivers smallbore steam from a very small package.

Article By Bob Forker

The 5.7x28 was developed by FN in the 1990s, and there is some pretty good evidence that it was originally developed for some real or proposed military application. At one time (perhaps still) there were four loadings with bullet weights ranging from 28 grains to 55 grains that included a tracer and a subsonic loading.

These loadings aren't available for civilian retail sale. They do suggest that FN has certainly considered other uses, other than just a simple pistol cartridge. And indeed, it was originally developed for the P90 Personal Defense Weapon.

Don't let the "5.7" part of the name fool you. This isn't a .23 caliber. This cartridge uses standard .224-inch-diameter bullets, the same as almost all .22 centerfires. As the picture shows, the 5.7x28 is what could be called a rimless Hornet--actually, it looks more like a rimless K-Hornet. If I could accurately predict which new cartridges would sell and which wouldn't, I'd be rich. Still, I think the 5.7x28 has good potential as a modern light .22. I would also suspect that by the time you read this somebody will have necked this neat little number to both .17 and .20 calibers. (I've done enough of that sort of thing and will leave this one for someone else).


The 5.7 x 28 FN

The only factory handgun being offered in this caliber is FN's Semi-Auto Pistol. It's interesting that while the factory is only producing 27- and 40-grain loads for civilian sale, the barrel twist in the pistol is a very tight 1:91?2 inches. That's enough to stabilize bullets up to about 70 grains and further suggests that the factory is still thinking about other applications down the road.

Bo Clerke made us two barrels, one five inches long and one 22 inches. At this writing, no one is building production rifle barrels in this caliber, but that will probably change overnight. It would sure make a great single-shot pistol. I know several companies are just waiting for a little demand to develop before cranking up their own production.

Today's ammo situation is interesting. FN is building some ammo with 27-grain aluminum-core bullets in Belgium, and Fiocchi is making some with 40-grain Hornady V-Maxs in Missouri but only to be sold through FN. So that's the only source of cases for the present. (Contact FN at 703/288-1292 for information.) Both the FN- and Fiocchi-built ammo styles employ staked-in primers in the military tradition. They both use Boxer primers and are easy to deprime but require reaming the residue of the staking off the mouth of the primer pocket before they can be reloaded. That's a bit of a drag, but you only have to do it once.

There are plenty of bullets that can be used and plenty of suitable powders. Our dies came from RCBS, but other manufactures have told me that can and will produce this caliber when the demand is there.

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Beeman R7 and the Ground Squirrels

A couple of years back, I bought a Beeman R7 air rifle in .20 caliber. I had owned one back in the late 1980's that was .177 caliber, but I foolishly sold it for a song. Anyway, I bought the rifle with the idea of trying some urban varminting. I figured the .20 would have a little more downrange punch than a .177.

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